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WC government and City of CT confident of overturning Amazon Africa development judgment

The Western Cape provincial government and the City of Cape Town have joined the Liesbeek Leisure Property Trust in applying for leave to appeal against the decision of the Western Cape High Court to urgently interdict a development that was to house the Amazon Africa headquarters.
The Western Cape provincial government and the City of Cape Town believe they have a good chance of winning the right to appeal against a Western Cape High Court decision to halt the construction of Amazon Africa’s headquarters at the River Club in Observatory, Cape Town.
The application will be heard at the Supreme Court of Appeal (SCA).
The Goringhaicona Khoi Khoin Indigenous Traditional Council and the Observatory Civic Association were granted an urgent interdict against the development after the traditional council said they had not been meaningfully consulted.
The city and the province say the development will be beneficial to the area.
“These benefits include rehabilitating a portion of the Liesbeek River, creating a high-quality green open space, establishing heritage infrastructure in partnership with First Nations groups, creating more than 5,200 construction jobs and approximately 19,000 employment opportunities [and] establishing public transport infrastructure,” Priya Reddy, the city’s spokesperson told Daily Maverick.
She said the development was expected to inject R4.5-billion of direct investment into the economy.
“As a result of the interdict, Cape Town has now been deprived of these benefits, to the detriment of its residents,” Reddy said.
The urgent interdict left many workers in limbo, a risk the applicants said the developer took knowing that the case was ongoing at the time of construction.
Wouter Kriel, the spokesperson for MEC Anton Bredell of the Western Cape’s Environmental Affairs and Development Planning Department, told Daily Maverick the judgment’s obligation to conclude meaningful consultation “raises matters of particular concern”.
Tauriq Jenkins, the high commissioner of the Goringhaicona Khoi Khoin Indigenous Traditional Council, told Daily Maverick that the argument of concluding meaningful consultation had been unsuccessfully used in the initial application for leave to appeal, which was dismissed with costs by Deputy Judge President Patricia Goliath in the Western Cape High Court in May.
“They are now wanting to repeat that argument at the Supreme Court of Appeal, at the expense of public money,” Jenkins said.
Liesbeek Leisure Property Trust (LLPT) has been pursuing “remedial work” at the development site and said this week that they were proceeding with structural work on the partially constructed first building.
“This phase of work will result in 380 construction workers ...

Four charts reveal seismic shifts in global energy within one lifetime

Every year, energy supermajor BP performs a much-needed service for economists, analysts and long-term planners everywhere with its annual Statistical Review of World Energy.
Published since the 1960s, the annual Statistical Review of World Energy is a trove of data on energy production and consumption, power generation, trade flows and other aspects of today’s energy system.
The publication always rewards a close look at both long-term trends and notable near-term changes. I could probably draw out dozens of meaningful trends, if I (and readers) had the time for them, but I will highlight four here.
Renewables are now 13% of global power generation
In 1985, coal-fired power was 38% of global electricity generation. Hydro was 20%, nuclear 15%; natural gas 14%; and oil a bit over 11%.
Three and a half decades later, coal is still king at 36%, and gas has increased to almost 23%. But every other major generation source of the mid-1980s has lost relative share — and more than gas alone can account for.
That is because renewable power (wind, solar, geothermal, biomass and small hydropower) has grown from 0.8% of the world’s electricity mix to 13%. Renewables passed the 10% mark in 2019 and have added 0.8% of market share — the same amount that they accounted for globally in 1985 — on average annually since 2010.
Wind and solar now generate more than nuclear power
Last year I noted that although renewable power generation does not exactly compete with nuclear, renewables were winning. In 2020, all renewable power generation surpassed all nuclear generation. In 2021, wind and solar surpassed 10% of global generation on their own, and overtook nuclear in annual generation.
Last year was actually a significant year for nuclear power. Nuclear generation increased more than 4% in 2021, the biggest increase since 2004, thanks to Chinese fleet additions.
China is now the world’s biggest importer of liquefied natural gas
BP has tracked trade in liquefied natural gas (LNG) since 2000. At the start of the century, Japan was far and away the world’s biggest LNG importer, taking in about 75 billion cubic metres a year. Europe as a whole was the next biggest importer, followed by South Korea. China did not even begin importing LNG until 2006.
Over the next 20 years, Japan’s LNG imports peaked, driven by the closure of many of the country’s nuclear plants following the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011. Europe’s import volume looked poised to match Japan’s a decade ...

Coal mining onslaught on Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park is tantamount to ecocide

What is happening with coal mining in northern KwaZulu-Natal in a Freshwater Ecosystem Priority Area is a war on water and our climate resilience.
“The southern white rhino has been to the brink of extinction and back, but even as it continues to be under threat from poachers, its survival is largely thanks to the conservation work of one park. Today, most of these rhinos can trace their ancestry back to the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa,” CNN reported in June 2020.
It was Ian Player and his mentor, Magqubu Ntombela, a game ranger and descendant of the great Zulu chiefs, Shaka and Dingaan, who set up wilderness trails in the iMfolozi and sparked a global wilderness consciousness movement.
As Player wrote, “everyone who comes to the wilderness is changed by it, no one who sleeps on the ground underneath the blaze of southern stars and hears the roar of the lion, the coughing of the leopard, the howl of the hyena, the scream of the elephant and smells the smoke of wild wood burning is ever the same again.”
And in what must be recognised as one of the greatest conservation achievements of all time, Ian Player’s “Operation Rhino” achieved a 1,000% growth in the white rhino population in the 1960s saving the 40 Southern White Rhino left in the 1940s from extinction. Operation Rhino took place in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park which is also the oldest proclaimed game reserve in Africa, having been established in 1895.
The Park sits on a coal belt and has, for over two decades, been subjected to the difficulties of having two coal mines as its neighbours on both its north and east boundary. Coal mining is polluting, noisy and not a good neighbour for the communities they inflict their pollution on nor the wild areas where animals and people live peacefully and, (gasp) even thrive. It seems utterly bizarre that coal mining would be given a place adjacent to ancient wild heritage and centuries-old Zulu culture — but that’s exactly what happened.
And continues to happen. The situation as it stands today is that there are three prospecting applications — for coal mining on the western and southern borders of the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Game Reserve respectively — and two coal mine expansion applications (for coal on the western and eastern borders of the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Game Reserve respectively) as well as several in the near vicinity.
One of the main ...

How the City of Cape Town managed to avoid Stage 6 load shedding thanks to hydroelectric scheme

While the rest of South Africa is being hit with Stage 6 load shedding, the City of Cape Town has offered some relief to its residents through the use of the Steenbras hydroelectric scheme. We unpack why Cape Town residents are currently only experiencing Stage 4 blackouts and what challenges other municipalities face in doing the same.
Stage 6 load shedding, which was last implemented in December 2019, returned this week. It means that most South Africans will go for up to six hours a day without electricity as the national grid sheds 6,000MW in an effort to prevent complete collapse. This was triggered by “unlawful and unprotected labour action” that disrupted Eskom’s operations, the struggling power utility said on Tuesday.
Read in Daily Maverick: Eskom strike appears to be over after unions call on workers to ‘normalise the situation’
But as South Africans brave the cold winter without power, Capetonians’ load shedding experience will be limited to Stage 4, thanks to the Steenbras Hydro Pump Station.
How does the Steenbras Hydro Pump Station work?
The 180MW Steenbras Hydro Pump Station (SHPS) is a pumped storage scheme, which consists of four turbines that are used to generate electricity.
The City of Cape Town’s Mayoral Committee Member for Energy, Beverley van Reenen, explained that, during peak electricity demand, the pump station channels water from the upper Steenbras reservoir to the lower reservoir through the turbine generator, to create electricity.
“When electricity usage is low — usually between 11pm and 7am — the turbines pump the water back to the upper Steenbras reservoir to be reused the next day. In this way, SHPS operates like a battery. The amount of electricity that it can generate in one day is limited by the capacity of the lower reservoir,” said Van Reenen.
She said that about two-thirds of the water used to generate power during the day is pumped back to the upper Steenbras reservoir at night, “to create more space for continual utilisation of the power station”. In this way, the scheme works akin to charging a cellphone battery at night for use the following day.
“Currently, we use Eskom power to pump water back to the upper reservoir in order to create space for generating the next day. It is also technically possible to accomplish this using other modes of supply if reasonably priced,” said Van Reenen. She added that the city was looking at storage facilities for independent generation additions.
Cape ...

Salvage operation under way after fishing vessel capsizes off Cape Point Nature Reserve

What started as a normal fishing trip on Sunday was to end sometime on Wednesday night when salvage operators expected to finish towing a stricken vessel to Cape Town harbour. The Restless Wave capsized off the coast of the Cape Point Nature Reserve at the weekend.
Early on Sunday morning, the Saldanha Bay-registered vessel, the Restless Wave, capsized eight nautical miles south of Cape Point. It happened quickly, with the National Sea Rescue Initiative (NSRI) saying: “It is believed that the vessel capsized in under a minute.”
The good news is that none of the 12 crew on board was injured and all were rescued by nearby boats. The bad news was that the vessel, with a fuel capacity of 45,000 litres, was stranded upside down, threatening marine life in a biodiverse and protected area.
These initial fears are subsiding as the salvage operation comes to an end.
The South African Maritime Safety Authority (Samsa) confirmed in a statement that they are “investigating the capsizing of a fishing vessel resulting in the rescue of 12 fishermen”.
The fishermen were transferred to shore following a rescue operation involving two Oceana vessels, with coordination from the Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre.
“The fishing vessel, Restless Wave, is still afloat off Cape Point and a navigation warning has been issued to vessels around the area. A salvage operation is underway to recover the vessel,” read the Samsa statement.
Asked about the vessel’s point of departure and planned destination, Samsa spokesperson Tebogo Ramatjie said it “departed Laaiplek, Berg River Mouth, St Helena Bay, on Saturday 25 June 2022 at 04h00LT, for the fishing grounds from Hout Bay to Cape Point.”
Ramatjie confirmed that “all twelve crew were rescued by three fellow fishing vessels operating nearby to the casualty, no fatalities or injuries reported. All the crew have been returned to their home port of Laaiplek at the mouth of the Berg River.” The vessels that came to the rescue are Oceana Concord, Oceana Mercury and Alert III.
In a statement, the NRSI said that at 4.44am on Sunday, 26 June, their “emergency operations centre was alerted by Telkom Maritime Radio Services and by MRCC (Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre) of a Saldanha Bay 24-metre fishing vessel capsized. following a VHF marine radio Mayday distress call intercepted by Telkom Maritime Radio Services.”
NSRI Simon’s Town station commander Darren Zimmerman said in the same statement that “NSRI Simon’s Town, NSRI Hout Bay and NSRI Kommetjie duty crew were ...

Aviation throttles up after Covid lockdowns — but at what cost to the climate?

Unlike many businesses compelled to cut emissions or pay carbon taxes in response to the climate crisis, the aviation sector (and global shipping industry) has largely managed to wriggle out of legally binding control measures.
Following the “greatest shock in aviation history”, regular air travellers are breathing a sigh of relief as they flock back to the skies for business or leisure. But who is regulating the soaring carbon emissions from an industry that continues to resist mandatory curbs?
Based on both its direct carbon emissions and unique contrail emissions, commercial aviation is responsible for somewhere between 3% to 5% of human-induced global climate forcing — more than France or Australia alone.
And though air transport advocates often present this form of travel as a ubiquitous activity by a large share of the world population, a recent analysis of industry data and national surveys suggests that the most frequent fliers — at most, 1% of the world population — likely account for more than half of the total emissions from commercial air travel.
The analysis found that while the most frequent travellers in the US can generate up to 318 tons of CO2 per person annually, and those in Luxemburg, Singapore, Saudi Arabia and Canada over 200t CO2/year, low emitters in many parts of Africa emit a mere 0.1t CO2 per year.
Now, with the lifting of Covid travel restrictions, global air transport demand has bounced back fast and is expected to triple by 2050.
However, due to the transnational nature of its emissions, the industry has evaded binding carbon reductions under both the 1997 Kyoto Protocol and the subsequent 2015 Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
Instead, regulation of this sector was left under the wing of a separate UN body, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO).
Corsia initiative
Finally, in 2016, ICAO members announced the Corsia initiative (Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation), the first global market-based measure to curb emissions outside national or regional regulatory action.
According to ICAO, this new approach provides a harmonised way to reduce emissions from international aviation, while minimising market distortion and respecting the “special circumstances and respective capabilities of ICAO member states”.
The scheme has three phases: a voluntary pilot phase scheduled to run from 2021-2023, followed by phase 1 (2024-2026) where states can also volunteer to participate; followed by a phase 2 (2027-2035), which covers all states that have a share above 0.5% of ...

Aquamation — a potentially greener alternative to traditional cremation and burial

A water-based cremation is not only better for the environment with 1/10th of the carbon footprint of flame-based cremation, but helps with the ever-growing issue of land scarcity.
You may not have thought of it, but your carbon footprint extends past the end of your life.
However, the option of having a ‘green’ cremation is becoming more accessible in South Africa, after the launch of the country’s second Alkaline hydrolysis or aquamation facility at Avbob’s Prep Centre in Pretoria West on Wednesday, 22 June.
The reason this natural biomimicry process is considered eco-friendly, and why known eco-warrior Desmond Tutu requested to be cremated like this, is because the process has no direct emission of harmful greenhouse gases or mercury into the atmosphere, with Avbob claiming it has a carbon footprint that is one 10th of that of flame cremation.
And despite taking a few more hours than a flame-based cremation, it is more energy-efficient, saving 90% energy compared to flame cremation.
Aquamation — also referred to as flameless cremation, water cremation and bio-cremation — is an alternative to flame-based cremation or burial, whereby the combination of water, heat, pressure and high alkaline level (combination of sodium and potassium hydroxide) accelerates the body’s natural decomposition process.
“It’s basically an accelerated version of what would normally happen either in the grave or. if you were to lay a body in a stream of running water,” said Adriaan Bester, Avbob General Manager for Corporate Affairs at the launch.
“That process that will happen there is exactly what happens here, it just happens in a few [4-6] hours instead of weeks or months.”
What’s left is the bones and a benign sterile liquid (containing no trace of DNA and RNA), that is recycled back into the municipal wastewater system.
Bester explained that our bodies are made up of 63% water to begin with, and only the bone minerals remain, which are then lightly processed into powder and returned to the family in an ash urn.
CEO of Avbob, Carl van der Riet, said, “In the context of the widely reported shortage of quality space for burials and memorial cemeteries, and the ever-growing challenge of the environmental impact of flame-based cremations, we’ve looked abroad for technology that addresses realities.”
The first aquamation facility, launched in Maitland, Cape Town in 2019, has performed over 500 aquamations to date, and Avbob plans to expand its aquamation service to a further eight Avbob branches across South Africa over the ...

Sea cucumber smuggling from East Africa to China threatening livelihoods and ecosystems

Coordinating laws in the Western Indian Ocean region is a vital first step towards protecting sea cucumbers.
The high demand for sea cucumbers in China is leading to their over-exploitation along the East African coast. This has potentially devastating consequences for locals, who use them for food and to make a living; and for the sensitive marine biodiversity.
Sea cucumbers are marine animals with leathery skin, mostly found on the ocean floor. The Western Indian Ocean, which borders countries along the East and Southern African coast, is home to the world’s fifth-largest population of sea cucumbers. This is according to a report published by the Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association (Wiomsa).
In East African coastal areas such as Kwale, Pemba and Zanzibar, local fisherfolk have relied on sea cucumbers as a food source and household revenue for generations. These creatures form part of the local diet in this region, and coastal communities trade in them to supplement their incomes.
Sea cucumbers from the East African coast are increasingly smuggled into Hong Kong, where they are used to produce medicine to treat joint pains, impotence and fatigue, a 2020 Traffic report notes. Traffic is an international non-governmental organisation that campaigns against the illegal trade in wildlife and plants. In 2019, a passenger travelling from South Africa to China via Nairobi was arrested at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport with dry sea cucumbers in his checked-in bag.
In Zanzibar, 1kg of sea cucumber fetches between $9 and $40, depending on the species and size. After exportation to China or Hong Kong, 1kg is worth up to $300. Between 2012 and 2018, Hong Kong imported 3.8 million kilograms (3,800 tonnes) of sea cucumber from Africa.
Inconsistent legislation across East Africa has allowed the over-exploitation of sea cucumbers, which the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora has listed since 2019.
In 2003, the Kenyan government banned the use of scuba diving equipment in sea cucumber fishing. However, the ban has never been enforced, leading to their further exploitation along the Kenyan coast. In 2006, Tanzania’s government banned the trade in sea cucumbers on its mainland. However, the trade has continued in Zanzibar, says the Traffic report. This selective criminality aims to protect sea cucumbers for local consumption, which is threatened by its commercialisation and export.
The report also notes the increased over-exploitation of sea cucumbers in mainland Tanzania and coastal Kenya. This was confirmed by Juma ...

From rock stars to obscurity – searching for lost Thoroughbreds

Thoroughbred horses are bred to be specialised athletes. They’re microchipped, have long pedigrees and the National Horse Racing Association says it tracks their life and retirement. But what happens when the paper trail runs out?
There are about 300,000 horses in South Africa that fall into three general groups: racehorses, performance horses and workhorses. Of that number, about 30,000 are registered Thoroughbreds.
Among them are the rock stars, the glory horses you see thundering around the track with a colourful jockey crouched on their backs. While under the auspices of the racing industry, they live a pampered life.
A Thoroughbred usually races for about six years, but may have a lifespan of anywhere up to 25. Each year an additional 2,000 to 3,000 Thoroughbred foals are microchipped (all foals must be microchipped). The numbers stack this way:
30,000 Thoroughbreds, of which
5,500 in racing and
5,000 in breeding and a further
10,000 registered beyond that,
being added to by 2,000 foals a year.
This leaves about 10,000 unaccounted for.
These are all purpose-bred racehorses in a declining race industry in which it’s extremely expensive to keep a horse in race or breeding trim.
Is there an excess of Thoroughbreds? And, if there is, where are they going?
“If you don’t find a home for them,” a top horse owner, who wished not to be named, told me, “you have to bear the cost of giving it a retirement paddock on your farm. Some people do that for their champions, but they won’t do it just for the run-of-the-mill horses.”
A good many are sold or even given to private owners for leisure riding, dressage or show jumping. Probably more than we know about simply get euthanised. For an increasing number, however, this is a better option than the horse ending up at risk.
A dead horse is a heavy problem. If you have a large property and a front-end loader, burial is an option. But a more common option is to truck it to a horse-meat provider.
There’s a resistance to eating horses and, because of the medications that racehorses are routinely administered, their meat may not be suitable for human consumption. Their destination is generally via specialised abattoirs to lion parks and game farms.
According to owner and racing journalist Robyn Louw, “the fact that many racehorse owners choose to end a horse’s life at the end of its career may be more a comment on the environment outside of racing than it is on ...

Pushing the limits: Why load shedding puts even more pressure on an ageing electrical system

The frequent switching on and off of load centres is putting additional pressure on an already overloaded system, which is why you might still be sitting in darkness even after load shedding was meant to end.
Johannesburg’s power utility City Power’s ageing infrastructure is not coping with the demands of Stage 4 load shedding.
Communicating with residents through a ward WhatsApp group, Nicolene Jonker, DA councillor in the City of Johannesburg, told residents on Monday that “City Power can’t cope with Stage 4 load shedding. Half the operators are busy switching load centres on and off every two hours for load shedding, and the number of substation trips from inrush current after load shedding is very high.”
Isaac Mangena, spokesperson for City Power Joburg agreed with her assessment, telling Daily Maverick that Stage 4 was putting too much strain on their resources, with some substations unable to return during restorations, leaving customers without power for a longer period.
“Load shedding has undesirable effects on the infrastructure which, by its nature, was never meant to be switched on and off at short intervals, and comes with it added financial pressures that we did not budget for,” said Mangena.
Mangena said that at the weekend they fielded more than 5,000 outage calls and by 6am on Monday, they were dealing with almost 2,700 calls — more than 2,000 of them in 24 hours.
Most of the outages have been backlogged since Friday, with Randburg, Reuven and inner-city areas hit the hardest most of last week and into the weekend.
Residents have taken to social media to express their frustration and confusion about why they still do not have electricity outside scheduled load shedding.
Ok now it’s 16:40 and still@no power after loadshedding? After our 6 hour outage this morning. Loadshedding is ridiculous enough as it is and even it doesn’t work properly. Absolutely infuriating!
Ashleigh Tuffney (@ashleightuff) June 27, 2022
loadshedding is quite damaging to the electrical infrastructure and it shows in the insane power outages happening in all the areas post loadshedding

EU’s big brawl over e-fuels: What’s wrong with liquid sunshine anyway?

The future of mobility will play out this week in the European Council and, as a result, as you can imagine, there’s frantic lobbying and heavy pressure. At stake is the final step in the EU’s complicated legislative process on environmental regulations, which starts out as a proposal by the commission, goes through various bodies such as the Environment Committee and the plenary and then – as it will on Tuesday – ends up in the council, where the EU member states will vote to either support the bill, or not.
Generally, this last step is a formality, as the Members of the European Parliament who ushered the text to this point are drawn from those governments – but politics is politics and the EU’s quest to phase out the sale of internal combustion engines (ICE) by 2035 is enormously consequential, not only to the motor companies, but also to the unions and the various powerful lobbies in the component manufacturing space.
And so, much to everyone’s surprise, into this fray on Monday last week stepped Christian Lindner, the German Finance Minister and member of the German Liberal Party, pulling the rug out from under the governing coalition, saying that he would not support the 2035 phase-out unless it included something called e-fuels – dubbed by some as “liquid sunshine”.
From the outside, this is hard to understand. Even from a cynical perspective, when you have the biggest names in German automotive manufacturing – specifically Volkswagen Group and Daimler – out in support of the internal combustion engine phase-out, can this last-ditch U-turn represent the outcomes of lobbying – and, if so, from whom?
The answer, I can only surmise, is what looks like a coordinated attempt from the remaining few German companies that actively oppose the new regulations – namely BMW and Bosch – via their industry body, the VDA, which in the days before Lindner’s volte face, released solid car sales figures (flat growth in an environment of supply chain problems and war isn’t exactly bad news), but framed it as catastrophic.
Anyway, the upshot of Germany’s wobble will play out in the EU council on Tuesday, and the ICE phase-out decisions will be hugely important for us in South Africa, because it will either render our motor industry (7% of GDP, might I remind you) obsolete within a decade, or requiring very fast regulatory change and significant investment and trust from the ...

The city that blows hot and cold – Cape Town’s flood-drought dichotomy explained

In a webinar on Thursday, City of Cape Town officials, climate scientists, adaptation specialists and others with direct experience in managing disaster responses to flooding looked at Cape Town’s projections for high rainfall, the expected impacts on residents, infrastructure and service delivery, among others, and the City’s preparedness plans and current projects for flooding.
A few years ago, Cape Town was nearly the first major city in the world to run out of usable water to supply its citizens. The likelihood of the city’s “Day Zero” water crisis was tripled by climate change.
Just last week, flooded roads and power outages from heavy rainfall caused havoc in some areas of the city, after a series of cold fronts struck the Western Cape.
And now, with Nelson Mandela Bay having recently become the first metro in South Africa to have large parts of it run out of water, and the recent flooding disaster in KwaZulu-Natal fresh in the memory of many, officials and relevant experts in Cape Town have been asking how the City might best prepare for similar and seemingly contradictory climate crisis-related events that are projected to occur.
Professor Gina Ziervogel, an associate professor in the Department of Environmental and Geographical Science at the University of Cape Town (UCT), facilitated a panel discussion about this matter on Thursday.
On climate change and in reference to the recent flooding in Durban, Dr Christopher Jack from the Climate System Analysis Group (CSAG) at UCT said “there has been an attribution study which a number of us were involved in where we tried to look at whether climate change influenced the probability of an event like that happening. it did draw the conclusion that it’s very likely that climate change did increase the probability of an event like that happening in that location.”
However, “it’s not that climate change is creating a new thing. These events have always happened. So, in many cases when we’re working in an urban context, cities are sometimes changing. faster than the climate system. And so with urban climate change adaptation, we’re really dealing with multiple things changing at the same time, which makes it very dynamic and quite complex. And, of course, we’re thinking across multiple timescales.”
An interesting case
“Cape Town’s a really interesting case because we’ve been through a big drought event in the past few years and many of us are very aware of climate change through the lens of increasing ...

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